"Шүүхийн eрөнхий шүүгчийг Eрөнхийлөгч томилдог нь маш ноцтой"

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"Оюуны инноваци" төвөөс шүүгчийн хараат бус байдлын судалгааг 2015 онд явуулсан бөгөөд судалгааны үр дүнд шүүгчийг сонгон шалгаруулах, томилохтой холбоотой санал зөвлөмжүүдийг гаргажээ. Тухайлбал, өнөөдөр хэрэгжиж буй шүүгчийн сонгон шалгаруулалт төдийлөн үр дүнтэй, шударга байж чадахгүй байна гэж үзэж байна. Шүүгч сонгон шалгаруулах хэлэлцүүлэг нь хаалттай, олон нийтэд мэдээлдэг цахим хуудас дээрээ мэдээллээ тавьдаггүй гэх мэт олон зөрчил гардаг. Тиймээс судалгаанд оролцсон шүүгчдийн дийлэнх хувь нь шүүгчийг сонгон шалгаруулдаг ШEЗ-ийн гишүүдийг Ерөнхийлөгч томилж байгаа нь хараат бус байдлыг алдагдуулж байна гэж үзжээ. Мөн ШEЗ-ийн гишүүдийн тоо цөөн учир тоог нэмэх. ШEЗ-ийн гишүүнд Хууль зүйн сайдын буюу улс төрийн албан тушаалтны санал ордог нь шүүгчийн хараат бус байдалд нөлөөлж байна гэж үзжээ.
 
Хэлэлцүүлэгт оролцсон зарим хуульчийн байр суурийг хүргэе. 
 

 
"ОЮУНЫ ИННОВАЦИ" ГҮЙЦЭТГЭХ ЗАХИРАЛ СУДЛААЧ, ХУУЛЬЧ П.БАТТУЛГА:

-Шүүхийн хараат бус байдлыг хангах асуудал нь эцсийн дүндээ шүүгчийн томилгоотой шууд холбогддог. Ерөнхийдөө шүүгчийн сонгон шалгаруулалтын  үйл явцыг 1993-2012 он хүртэл хэсэгчлэн авч үзэж болно. Өөрөөр хэлбэл, 2012 онд шүүхийн багц хууль батлагдаж шүүгчийн сонгон шалгаруулалтад тодорхой хэмжээний өөрчлөлтүүд  орсон. 1993-2012 онд шүүгчийн сонгон шалгаруулалтад голлох үүрэгтэй оролцож байсан байгууллага бол шүүгчийн мэргэжлийн хороо байсан. Тус хороо нь шалгалт авсан тэнцсэн нэр дэвшигчдээс Шүүхийн Ерөнхий зөвлөл /ШЕЗ/  нэр дэвшигчээ тодруулж Ерөнхийлөгчид санал болгодог байсан. 2012 онд шүүхийн  мэргэжлийн хорооны үнэлгээнээс гадна Монголын хуульчдын холбоо шүүгчид нэр дэвшигчдийн талаарх ур чадварын талаар дүгнэлт гаргадаг болсон.

ШЕЗ мөн нэр дэвшигчидтэй ганцаарчлан ярилцлага хийдэг шинэ зохицуулалт орж ирсэн.1993 оноос өнөөдрийг хүртэл шүүгчийг сонгон шалгаруулах арга ажиллагаа  нь арван удаа шинэчлэгдэн батлагдсан байна. Өөрчлөгдөх тутам л улам нарийн боловсронгуй болж байгаа гэж харж байна. Үүнд хамгийн гол маргаан дагуулаад байгаа нэг асуудал  нь ШЕЗ-өөс шүүгчид нэр дэвшигчийг Ерөнхийлөгчид санал болгох процесс дээр ойлгомжгүй, тодорхойгүй зүйл их гарч байна. Тухайлбал, хамгийн өндөр оноо авсан хүн яагаад шүүгч болсонгүй вэ, түүнээс бага оноо авсан хүн яагаад шүүгч болчхов гэхчлэн  хүмүүсээс хэл, ам их  гардаг. Хаа, хаанаа ийм ойлгомжгүй зүйл байгаад байна.

Дээрх асуудлыг зайлшгүй тодорхой болгох шаардлагатай.УИХ-аар хэлэлцэгдэж байгаа хуулийн төслөөс харахад өмнөх хуулийн зохицуулалтаас хэд, хэдэн зүйлийг хассан байна. Жишээлбэл, Монголын хуульчдын холбооноос шүүгчид нэр дэвшигчийн талаарх дүгнэлтийг гаргадаг байсан процессыг бүхэлд нь хассан. ШЕЗ нэр дэвшигчидтэй ярилцлага хийдэг процессыг мөн хассан байна. Хамгийн сүүлд 2019 оны сүүлээр 2020 оны эхээр шүүгчдээс анкетын судалгаа авахад 275 шүүгчийн 48 хувь нь шүүгчийг томилохдоо ур чадвар туршлагаас өөр шалгуураар томилдог гэдэгтэй санал нийлсэн байсан.

 МУИС-ИЙН БАГШ, ДОКТОР, ДЭД ПРОФЕССОР О.МӨНХСАЙХАН:

-Монгол Улсын Үндсэн хуулийн 49.4-т шүүгчийг хуульчдаас шилж сонгох үйл явцыг ШЕЗ гүйцэтгэнэ гээд маш тодорхой заасан. Гэтэл өнгөрсөн хугацаанд ШЕЗ энэ чиг үүргээ  өөрөө бие дааж дангаараа хэрэгжүүлэх бус тусдаа  мэргэжлийн хороо байгуулаад, тус хороо нь шалгалт авдаг болсон. Шалгалтаар хүмүүсийн байрыг  эрэмбэлээд нэрсээ ШЕЗ-д өгдөг. ШЕЗ тэдгээр нэрсэн дундаас мэргэжлийн хорооны эрэмбийг барихгүйгээр сонголт хийдэг. Үүнээс болоод янз бүрийн хардлага, сэрдлэг тасрахгүй байна. Олон улсад зөвхөн нэг байгууллага шүүгчийн сонгон шалгаруулах үйл явцад хяналтыг маш сайн  тавьж  хамгийн сайн шаардлага хангасан  хүнийг сонгодог.

Харин Монгол Улсад давхардсан хоёр байгууллага ажиллаж байгаа учраас  нэг бол мэргэжлийн хорооны шалгалтыг  процессын хувьд зөв, буруу гэдгийг ШЕЗ үнэлээд Ерөнхийлөгч рүү явуулах болчхож байгаа  юм. Гэтэл  энэ нь Үндсэн хуулиар хүлээсэн ШЕЗ-ийн үүрэг болон Үндсэн хууль зөрчигдөнө гэсэн үг.

Өөрөөр хэлбэл, шүүгч хэн байх вэ гэдэг гол шийдвэрийг мэргэжлийн хороо гаргах гээд байдаг. ШЕЗ нь шалгалт авсан хүмүүсээсээ ахиад сонгоно гэхээр яагаад мэргэжлийн хорооны эрэмбийг барихгүй байна вэ гэдэг асуулт гарч байна.

Үндсэн хуульд Ерөнхийлөгч ШЕЗ-ийн санал болгосноор шүүгчийг томилно гэсэн боловч харамсалтай нь монголын үе, үеийн Ерөнхийлөгч уг асуудалд үзэмжээрээ шүүгчдээс татгалзах асуудал маш ихээр гарч байна. Энэ зүй бус нөлөөллийг саармагжуулах хуулийн  зохицуулалт маш чухал. Ерөнхий  шүүгч, дээд шүүхээс бусад шүүхийн Ерөнхий шүүгчийг томилох, сонгох талаар Үндсэн хуульд ямар ч зохицуулалт байхгүй. Энийг хууль тогтоогчид  бодлогоор шийднэ. Тэр дундаа дээд шүүхээс бусад шүүхийн ерөнхий шүүгчийг томилох бүрэн эрх Ерөнхийлөгчид Үндсэн хуулиар ерөөсөө олгогдоогүй. ШЕЗ-ийн дарга, гишүүдийг Ерөнхийлөгч томилдог нь маш ноцтой. Ер нь шүүгчийн томилгоотой холбоотой эрх мэдлийг нэг субьектид хэт төвлөрүүлж хамаатуулах нь хамгийн аюултай. Тэр нь Ерөнхийлөгч, ЗГ, ШЕЗ-ийн альд нь ч  байж болохгүй” гэв.



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